HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Fri, 04 Dec 2020 15:24:59 GMT 34淫图

[X] CLOSEMAIN MENU

[X] CLOSEIN THIS SECTION

Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

单词lasting 联想记忆:

Show MoreHide

The BFC's news has been met with support from people on social media, who have applauded the designers choosing to forgo the use of animal fur.
Whenever I talk to people about the future, I'm struck by their belief that it is knowable. The impression I get is that most people imagine the future like a book ending: already written and readable if you can just steal a quick look at the last few pages. What they find difficult is accepting that the pages aren't written yet. The future hasn't happened, hasn't even been planned--and cannot be known because it doesn't exist.
Atlas Wearables founder Peter Li says battery technology and user retention are two more obstacles facing the wearables market. Some use cases require significant improvements to battery technology for a compelling experience, he says, and there’s always a balance to be struck between wear time between charges and processing power and features.

adj. 泰然自若的,镇定的;摆好姿势不动的,静止的;平
汤姆·佩蒂
Chinese state media reported that box office revenue growth was 13.5 percent in 2017, with this year marking only a modest decline.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

央行货币政策委员会:货币政策更注重松紧适度

When it was set up in 2002, Teach First’s aim was to encourage more graduates to try teach-ing. Amid worries that the best brains in the country were being lured into the City of London, accountancy and law, the idea was to tap some of their brain power for state schools, in an attempt to tackle educational inequality.
It was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness…
Supporting Actor in a Limited Series or Movie: Sterling K. Brown, “The People v. O. J. Simpson: American Crime Story”

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

单词petroleum 联想记忆:
农业原材料,特别是所谓的软性大宗商品,例如糖、咖啡和棉花,今年的表现在最佳之列。
The two extraordinary sex toys will go on display at an upcoming exhibition at the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco in the United States.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 更强的是设计公司Ideo的全球董事总经理伊恩?罗伯茨(Iain Roberts),他问了一个我一点都不感兴趣的问题:“怎样激发人们去洞察潜在机动性或多模式需求?”
  • 专家称中国还有这5亿人要买房 你是其中一员吗?
  • ?大雪已经降落在西弗吉尼亚州,在韦伯斯特斯普林斯雪的厚度达到17英寸。国家气象局警告说更多的雪还在路上。
  • 评论:谨防房价未跌物价先涨
  • 房企下半年销售将进一步分化
  • 当城市规划部门明年初(2015年——译注)提出初步的建议方案时,布鲁克林的东纽约(East New York)地区将被列为试点。随后,重新区划进程就将在该处全市最穷社区之一内展开。而紧随其后的,将是针对皇后区的西法拉盛(Flushing)的提案。
    这名官员称,米特卜王子已于11月28日获释。米特卜王子在11月初以前一直掌管着颇有实权的国民警卫队。至少还有三名嫌疑犯也完成了和解协议。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 恒大地产主业外再布局 900亿元投资进军光伏产业, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

Show MoreHide

The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

最新家居市场争夺战 亚马逊Echo拉开序幕

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

福建水泥价格将掉头下跌

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

Show MoreHide

How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 两者都宣称代表反对外国人和卖国贼的人民。
    Philippa Langley, a member of the Richard III Society who coordinated and helped fund the search, said she hoped a new image would emerge of the king and "the two-dimensional character devised by the Tudors will be no more".
  • 爱尔兰球迷。他们唱歌,跳舞,喝酒然后再唱歌。波尔多,球迷小伙们正在给一个法国婴儿唱摇篮曲让小孩睡觉。
    Around 2025, China's richest man's personal wealth will match the US' richest man's, and will be in a race to be the world's richest man, the magazine predicted.
    Issued by the Institute of Social Security Research, Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, the report shows that the return rate of enterprise employees' pension insurance fund reached 3.1 percent, the highest in seven years.
    埃马纽埃尔马克龙(Emmanuel Macron)会得到德国总理安格拉默克尔(Angela Merkel)对欧元区预算的承诺吗?
    romantic

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • LED电商成本并不低 实现盈利是一场持久战
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • “后装修”时代崛起 家居企业顺势发展是王道

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

Show MoreHide

Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

俄罗斯为世界上第十大经济体,除了天然气(碳氢化合物),经济贡献甚微。腐败和寻租行为使经济蒙受巨大损失。它依然沿用着苏联时代的基础设施,并且满足国民教育、医疗需求的能力正急速下滑。
neglect
多年来,西方排放量的缓慢减少,被东方排放量的日益增加所抵消。2013年,这种趋势仍在继续。中国的排放量增加了4.2%,印度增加了5.1%。中印两国一直在以极快的速度修建火力发电厂。
It is not all bad news for buyers: Prices will still head north next year, but the pace will likely slow from a sprint to a saunter. “Prices can’t just keep going up, up, up on this steep climb,” said Pamela Liebman, the chief executive officer of Corcoran. “Buyers get a little fatigued.”
5.生物医学工程师
The Canadian city of Vancouver remains the most expensive location in North America, ranked 21st in the index.
Will Washington's tentative truce continue?

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

Show MoreHide

Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

Show MoreHide

Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 是的,你想知道怎么去做好你的工作。但是仍然有一些你想要学的东西;否则,你就没有职业发展。如果你在工作中不能学到新的东西,那么已经是时候去找一个能够学到新知识并且有职业发展的工作了。
  • 都在谈涂装一体化 涂企必须得进行一体化吗?
  • In the MBA ranking, LBS, Insead and Spain’s IE Business School are bunched together with only a few dollars between them. Insead has the top salary at $155,015.
    An escalating war on drugs in the Philippines has led to almost 1,800 deaths under new president Rodrigo Duterte, the country’s police chief has said.
  • “青春北新?漆彩家园”活动在继续
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • The Office for National Youth Campus Football said that China already had 13,381 "special football schools" as of 2016, and 69 counties are piloting programs for football in schools, the Xinhua News Agency reported.
    马来西亚怡保——怡保位于吉隆坡北部约200公里处,从前是英国的殖民地,如今却是美食家的天堂,那里既有当地路边小吃,也有精致的咖啡馆。
  • The University of St Gallen’s domination of the Financial Times’ ranking of masters in management courses continues for another year.
    The government is keen to encourage lending to small and medium-sized borrowers, many of whom do not have credit histories. Analysts estimate the number of Chinese consumers who are financially active but without access to credit to be 500m.
  • 《皮囊之下》就是如此的直观如此的自由不羁,抛开欢快,离奇的剧情和电影本身的情色——一切都处于黑暗中,摧毁性的性爱中。它是一种力量,在你的皮囊之下。
    adj. 有资格的,有限制的
  • n. 全体船员,全体乘务员,(一组)工作人员
    节目16 武术《少年中国》,赵文卓 范龙飞 侯英岗
    The world is casting its eye on Brazil for hosting two of the most coveted sporting events — the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the Summer Olympics two years after. Except for watching exciting games and cheering for your favorite team and players, you can also take a trip to “the lungs of the earth”, the Amazon forest, to escape the crowds and embrace nature. Either way, Brazil is sure to leave you with an unforgettable memory.
  • 这张专辑等于是一次直截了当的暗示,提醒着我们,不论什么时候,只要霉女王想要,她就能拿回自己在流行音乐界的领先地位。
    [in'geid?d]
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 宁波女性买房猛增:“比起找男友 房子更重要” shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

天猫向线下卖场妥协:紧急解除与家装O2O合作

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

发改委副主任连维良:今后3-5年将大幅增加养老床位

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

两会新观察:绿色建材要有干货 不能仅停留在思路上

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

米兰家具展进军中国 盯上东莞厚街家具

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • An ancient Egyptian amulet was uncovered in Jerusalem by a young girl taking part in a family dig in the capital.
  • 2013年北京入境游客的减少可谓出乎意料。此前北京市出台了72小时过境免签等多项新政策,其目的正是为了促进旅游产业发展。
  • 北京冬奥村项目启动建设 赛后将作为人才公租房

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • adj. 保守的,守旧的
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 美国演员、作家、时装设计师、舞蹈演员、制片人、歌手——拥有这么多头衔的珍妮弗·洛佩兹是2015年全球十大美女的亚军。作为一个结过三次婚的女星,洛佩兹的感情问题一直都是世界各国媒体关注的焦点。除涉足娱乐圈外,她还在商业领域颇有建树,其中包括经营服装、配饰、香水等。此外,她拥有一家制片公司,主持电视节目,还成立了一家慈善机构。
    Matt Lauer
    达奇斯说:三菱每况愈下。低销售量使得公司作出决定,退出欧洲市场。如果负面的讨论可以看成是失败的迹象,那么公司在2013年看上去也不会有多好。
  • 交易员们纷纷退出:“不可持续趋势苟延残喘的时间可以远超多数人的预期,但时候一到,在周期的顶点,它们还是会结束。”他们分析了20多种周期,“差不多无一意外地预示未来数月、数年将发生地壳运动”。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • n. 经营方法,行为态度
  • 2017淘汰赛加剧 中小门窗企如何躲过一劫?
  • 维多利亚的秘密内衣秀刚刚拉开华丽巨幕,今年的秀也是有史以来最奢华复杂的一次。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 深圳拟推“稳租金商品房” 成效尚待市场检验
  • Household substance abuse
  • 二套房首付比降幅超预期 一线城市望量价齐升
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

卖场难觅婴儿家具 市民购买多依靠网络

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 小微企业普惠性减税力度加大 首季新增减税576亿元
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 太原明年将在家居建材行业推广“明码实价”
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

阿方索?卡隆(Alfonso Cuaron)凭藉广受好评的全球热门太空科幻影片《地心引力》(Gravity)赢得最佳导演奖。《地心引力》、《美国骗局》和《为奴十二年》均有可能成为今年奥斯卡奖(Academy Awards)的夺奖热门,本周四将公布今年奥斯卡奖提名名单。(与金球奖不同,奥斯卡奖还设置技术类奖项。)

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

Manal al-Sharif
冲击奖项:最佳电影提名应该可以肯定。参演《至暗时刻》的加里奥德曼是最佳男主角的最热人选,如果说有谁能击败他的话,那可能就是克莱门特了。
Dachis says: Fiat suffered through a slow global sales year in 2012. Sluggish sales were reflected in sluggish social activity as the company went in reverse on positive discussion around the web.
"To make the world a better place, I invented a transformative water purifier," Google quoted Zhang as saying. "It takes in dirty and polluted water from rivers, lakes and even oceans, then massively transforms the water into clean, safe and sanitary water. When humans and animals drink this water, they will live a healthier life."
Piggyback riders are designed especially for small children and toddlers, to lessen the parents’ struggles.
Five schools from five different countries are ranked for the first time. Singapore’s Lee Kong Chian School of Business is the highest new entrant coming straight into 36th place. Canada’s Queen’s Smith School of Business registered the best progression, climbing 32 places to 67th.
n. 路线,(固定)线路,途径
单词encourage 联想记忆:
Beyoncé vs. Jennifer
The bulk of the risk in this move comes with the possibility that both Ibaka and Turner are free agents this summer, but the disappointment that might result from losing one or both would pale in comparison of a postseason flameout in May.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

高端散热器技术落户中国

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 1. Hokkaido, Japan-Though known primarily to the outside world for its ski resorts and powdery snow, Hokkaido's year-round beauty might soon become a more familiar sight to foreign visitors. The new bullet-train service from Tokyo should help.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 2008年,中国政府增加了一个归类为精神疾病的条目:"网瘾症"。据大量官方媒体报道,中国的年轻人花太多时间泡在网吧里,不顾家人和工作玩网络游戏到凌晨,有时甚至不吃,不喝,不睡眠,严重危害了自己的健康。
  • 防水行业有效供给不足 “供给侧改革”战役需打响
  • Yes Man is a heartwarming blockbuster that explores what would happen if you answered "yes" to every question in your life. Jim Carrey's character takes on this challenge and ends up learning Korean, taking flying lessons, and getting promoted. He goes from being a pessimistic divorced man to an exciting trendsetter and finds a new girlfriend in the process. It might sound like fiction, but this movie is loosely based on a memoir of the same name by freelance radio producer Danny Wallace.
  • 转型方可新生 电商时代定制家居企业的线下渠道建设
  • 供给侧结构性改革:去产能、去库存、去杠杆、降成本、补短板

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 石家庄一楼盘预售4年未交付 开发商却称要退房?
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Interbrand的全球首席执行官杰斯·弗兰普顿表示:“苹果、谷歌和可口可乐是世界上最有价值的品牌。因为他们的财务实力雄厚,品牌具有强大的号召力,这是其竞争对手无法比拟的。”
  • 投资者也关注到了本田的这一困境。尽管在席卷全球的金融危机中,本田是全球少数几家能独善其身、避免严重亏损的汽车厂商之一,但在过去几年中,其普通股股价下跌了17.2%,而同期日经225指数却上涨了7.4%,丰田汽车的股价也上涨了19.5%。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

二手房交易保证金监管盲区:给中介有被挪用风险

View All Footnotes